Tag Archive | "photovoltaic cell"

Solar Energy Basics

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Solar energy is the most useful and brilliant source of generating power. Many of the worlds energy producing resources are outdated. The natural climate is being affective by growing emissions and green house gases. It will definitely have a negative impact on our environment which may lead to much more destruction.

The Magic of Solar Power – Shifting to Alternative Methods:

In times of growing economic recession and a lot of unemployment, many individuals cannot afford long and hefty bills. The Solar Power is the perfect solution to the problem. Have a look at the advantages and amazing features of the Solar Power. It can literally be used anywhere on the Earth. Solar Power is perhaps the only and most significant answer to all the new world problems. Many governments have already started working on it.

Why Solar Power – The Overview:

Solar Power is very vital. Must needs to realize to weighting of its collective benefits in order to realize the entire benefits of Solar Power. Solar Power can be extremely wonderful if it is taken in a better fashion. Solar Energy is energy that is harnessed from the Sun. Sun is the primal means of providing the Earth with power.

Sun – The Prime Energy Provider:

All forms of power exist on Earth due to Sun. Sun is the only and most significant source of generating power on the planet. Let it be chemical potential energy or geothermal energy, the Sun has contributed to its existence. However it also gives out its own power.

Plasma Rays and Radiation – Effective Use:

Radiation or Plasma rays are the terms used to describe Solar Power or Sunlight. Sunlight can be converted into useful energy by some simple investment and similar steps. The Sunlight is actually a bundle of energy rays. IF they are concentrated on a particular spot, they can generate energy. The Energy is quite useful.

Solar Power Panels – Installation and Applications:

A Solar Power Panel can be installed literally anywhere. Sunlight is the only fuel it requires and investment in Solar Power will never disappoint. Many developing and developed nations have used Solar Power as the perfect means of generating electricity. The Solar Power is extremely cheap and completely user friendly.

Emission of Green House Gases – Not An Issue Anymore:

Solar Power does not produce any emissions or green house gases. It contributes greatly in keeping the environment clean and steady. The Solar Power Panels are easily available in the market and be purchased at a reasonable cost. The Solar Power Panel Kit contains several components which are required.

The Components of Solar Power Panel:

An Inverter, Solar Modules and the Batteries come with the Solar Power Panel Kit. These instruments are connected together to form an effective system. Such a system can be used to work out the energy crisis being faced by millions of people.

Types of Cell – The Poly Crystalline Cells:

Solar Cells are the foremost important components required to trigger the process. The Solar Cells are made up of crystals. There are two categories of Solar Cells. The poly crystalline cells and the mono crystalline cells. These cells differ in nature and expense. They usually determine the amount of cells used and energy produced.

Location of Solar Units – Where To Install:

Solar Cells are fixed on the rooftop or an open area where sunlight is available. The water in the water tank gradually boils as PV cells transfer heat energy into the water.

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Types And Advantages Of Solar Heating Systems

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Now you can power your house with green energy. It may sound expensive or difficult to convert normal home into sun-inspired home. But in fact, it is fairly simple and economical. These have countless benefits. Being environment-friendly, these are safer and not harmful for the atmosphere around.

Two methods of solar heating are “active” and “passive”.

Active solar heating

Specific equipment is required for active solar heating. Pumps and fans are needed to move or direct sun heat. There are two further classifications in it, which are air-based and liquid systems.

1.Air-based solar heating

In air-based solar heating systems, collectors are used. These trap air which absorbs and transfers heat from the sun. Air-based system can work on lower efficiency than liquid ones. Why is that so? The reason is that air cannot transfer heat efficiently like water can do.

Advantages of air-based solar heating

There is an advantage of air-based solar heating that these systems can warm up room directly. These can also function early in the morning and late in the day. Moreover, these are easy to build and install. These can be fixed outside so that more than one room in a house can be heated.

Air-based connectors are mostly installed on window frames, roofs and walls.

2.Liquid-based active solar heating

Liquid solar collectors are used in liquid-based systems. These trap and move heat. Most common are flat-plate collectors. A fluid, like water or antifreeze is filled. This liquid absorbs heat. This heated fluid is then transferred to heat exchanger or storage tank through mechanical collector such as pump.

Important considerations

While installing solar heating system, consider these important things first:

  • Its cost is affordable
  • Size is suitable to your particular needs
  • It is durable and long-lasting
  • Tank placement is absolutely accurate

When entire mechanism is properly installed, solar heat can be distributed with a central-forced air system, a radiant floor, and a baseboard or hot water radiator.

Passive solar heating

Another type is Passive solar heating system. It works by storing solar energy. It does not require any electrical or mechanical devices.

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Review Of SunPower Solar Systems

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The quest for renewable energy sources has continued through out the history. The pace further picked up during the last decade and now the companies are investing huge amounts in research and development of alternate energy sources. The capacity of solar power has been taken note of by the world community and efforts are being made to harness it. SunPower Solar Systems is one of the companies that joined the race to develop solar energy for domestic users.

History Of SunPower Solar Systems

SunPower Solar is a company with its manufacturing done at Philippines. It is a public sector company with its headquarters located at San Jose, California. The company aims at reducing the initial cost of installing the solar energy systems for the domestic users.

Technology Of SunPower Solar

SunPower Solar specializes in manufacture of solar panels and high quality photovoltaic cells. The company also produces good quality roof tiles which are capable for using the solar energy in optimum manner.

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Reducing Electricity Bills By Solar Powered Systems

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There is a financial incentive for businessmen in installation of solar powered systems in their businesses and work places to generate electricity. The monetary benefits come in the form of rebates and tax relaxation. Also, with advanced technology, solar energy is not used just to heat up water, but is actually converted to electricity. Thus, lights, computers and other appliances could be run from energy derived directly from the Sun.

One example of the financial incentive exists in the state of California, which estimates $4000 per kilowatt of rebate and 15% tax credit. Generally, people are encouraged to use solar powered systems because of numerous reasons, like less pollution from power plants, saving the reserves of fast depleting non renewable resources like coal and oil from earth etc. Also, the person will help lessen his ‘carbon footprint’ on the earth.

How Does A Solar Powered System Work:

How Does A Solar Powered System Work

There is a photovoltaic cell that collects sunlight, and is tilted and faced due south to enable it to collect the maximum amount of energy. It is installed on a rooftop, ground, pole, or any suitable place to avail maximum exposure to sunlight. The DC current thus produced is fed to an inverter which produces AC current, which is the form of electricity provided by the power stations to houses and workplaces. The inverter synchronizes the current with that produced by the grid, and supplies it via the utility meter to the grid.

Connection to The Power Company:

The electricity is supplied to the grid and so the utility meter may run slowly, indicating less energy used from the power station, or even backward, indicating energy being supplied to power station. In a “Net Metering State” like California, the power company is supposed to pay the full retail price for the power produced by individuals.

Benefits Of A Solar Powered System:

They are easy to install with no moving parts that are breakable, no rigorous monitoring required, and no noise. They have a warranty of as long as 25 years. This means that even after the payback period (the period required to cover investment cost) has passed, it keeps running and yielding profits.

Need Of Batteries For Solar Powered System:

If there is a power failure from the utility company, there is no electricity supplied to the grid by the inverter to save any person from an electric shock in the event the utility company sends a lineman for maintenance or repair. With a battery powered system, backup energy is supplied to the individual’s company or work place; otherwise there will be no electricity available for the person’s business. So depending on the type of battery, electricity could be supplied for hours, and even days, however, with the battery powered system there is a reduction in efficiency of electricity produced. So, there is less profit made by selling electricity to grid, as well as additional cost of replacing the battery pack every 5 to 6 years.

Determination Of Daily Electricity Usage:

Before installation, the business owner should know the power consumption of say, his workplace, by asking the utility company about the power consumption in kilowatt hours per day or per month. Read the full story

Refrigerators That Work on Solar Energy

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Solar energy is growing and advancing so rapidly that now one can run a refrigerator on it. These refrigerators are powered by a photovoltaic cell which collects energy from the sun stores it and then makes it available for use. This new technology not only saves money but also the environment which definitely needs some saving.

Size and Power Consumption

Size and Power Consumption

Refrigerators that run on solar energy are small in size. They are ideal for use during camping or for RV owners. Many people in remote areas also use these type refrigerators. These refrigerators run on a 12 volt backup battery and can easily cool down their contents to about thirty degrees lower than the surrounding temperature. Solar energy is not as compatible with these refrigerators as one would like. If solar energy is the only available source of charging the battery then the refrigerator must have a very small ampere-hour need.

Usage according to Conditions

Solar refrigerators can be a difficult thing to use when the solar energy is the only source for charging the battery because solar energy produced with the help of photovoltaic cells is not constant all the time due to changes in the intensity of sun’s light, and other various factors which includes their position. According to the temperature the refrigerator will require similar energy. For example during the winter the temperatures are lower and the refrigerator will require lesser amount of energy to keep its contents cool.

Solar Refrigerators against Conventional Refrigerators

Solar refrigerators can be used very effectively to transfer vaccines and medicines where they are required and can easily take place of conventional refrigerators that mostly run on kerosene. Kerosene refrigerators require a fuel of about a liter on everyday basis whereas refrigerators that run on solar energy can keep the contents cold for free.

Cost of Solar Refrigerators

Refrigerators that run on solar energy are much more costly than their conventional counterparts. A solar refrigerator costs about $3500 to $4500. Read the full story

Photovoltaic (PV) Cells

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In this modern era, people are looking for sources of creating usable electricity which is not only reliable but also environmental friendly. Due to this demand or interest, researchers and scientists started working on this project. They found many solutions but the best solution was Photovoltaic Cells.

What Is a Photovoltaic Cell?

What Is a Photovoltaic Cell

A photovoltaic cell is basically a device which generates electricity just by using energy from the sun. A photovoltaic cell does not require any fossil fuel for its operation and hence it is the most clean and environmental friendly source of electricity.

Composition of a Photovoltaic Cell

A photovoltaic cell consists of a diode. A diode conducts electric current through conducting materials as well as insulators when the electrons in the diode are provided with sufficient energy. This energy can be provided by any mean including heat energy from the sun.

How Photovoltaic Cells Work

The light rays from the sun carry the energy. When these light rays strike on the photovoltaic cell, the energy from the rays is transferred into the atoms of the semiconductor which in turn release electrons. These electrons are the charge carriers and hence they start conducting electrical charge in the form of a Direct Current. This Direct Current then enters the inverters which converts this Direct Current into usable Alternating Current. This Alternating Current can then be fed through the utility panel and then used to power up anything.

Extrinsic Semiconductors

Silicon is the most common semiconductor because of its physical qualities. Most semiconductors are fabricated using silicon. This may be due to the fact that silicon is more durable and also stable at higher temperatures. Read the full story

Solar Energy: Photovoltaic Systems

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Solar Power is one of the most amazing and brilliant means of developing energy. Energy can be made by the combustion of Fossil Fuels. Experts and scientists have worked feasibility reports regarding how Solar Power can be properly harnessed. Many individuals have already made use of PV Cells which can be very fruitful to many.

Solar Power – An Energy Alternative

Solar Power – An Energy Alternative

Many people have contributed in developing the Solar Power. Solar Power can be easily extracted if all means of power are utilized. Solar Power is extremely simple and effective. Have a look how Photovoltaic Cells work and how the Solar Power Panel System works. Many governments and organizations have installed Solar Power Units and are working towards a better and cleaner future. This Alternative form of energy is environment friendly and good.

Types of Solar Cells

Solar Power is basically the energy that is extracted from the Sun. Solar Power can be easily extracted if Solar Cells are installed. These Solar Cells are made up of Silicon and primarily available in two different categories. The monocrystalline cells and polycrystalline cells are the most common and widely used Solar Cells in the world.

Monocrystalline Solar Cells

Monocrystalline Cells are grown only in a single plain. These Cells are quite effective and efficient. Solar Power can be easily extracted by storing it in them and later processing energy from it. These Solar Cells are economic and easily available in the market. Monocrystalline Cells are perfect for domestic use worldwide.

Polycrystalline Solar Cells

The Polycrystalline Cells are those Solar Cells which are grown in multiple directions. These Cells make use Sunlight to generate Solar Power. The Polycrstalline Cells are expensive and highly efficient. These Cells generate a lot of power and are considered to be ideal for commercial usage.

What Is A Photovoltaic Cell?

The term “Photovoltaic” comes from two separate words. “Photo” means light and “voltaic” means electricity. When combined, both of these terms make up for electricity that is produced. Solar Cells generate electricity in a very independent manner. These Cells are very effective and make least pollution in any way possible.

How Solar Cells Absorb Energy

Solar Power is available all over the world. The Earth receives as much as 170 Petawatts of energy. Most of this energy is not used by any means. Solar Power Panels can absorb this energy and store it in Batteries or other mechanics. The Solar Power can be used in several different ways and techniques.

A Solar Power Panel Kit

A Solar Power Panel Kit is available in the market. This Solar Power Panel Kit includes Batteries and Inverters and the Solar Modules. Read the full story

Know Your Bill – Shift To Solar Energy

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Pacific Gas & Electric Company is one of the largest of suppliers of a combination of natural gas and electricity in California, United States. This firm is originally based in San Francisco. This company provides electricity to more than 15 million residents over an area of 80000 square Kilometers in Northern & Central California.

Pacific Gas & Electric Company facilitates roughly 9.6 million Electric and Natural Gas consuming customers and is responsible for their needs.

Shift To Solar Energy

However due to increased consumption of energy, a dire need is felt to shift to other modern and sophisticated sources of obtaining energy. Perhaps Solar Power is the answer.

Step towards A Green Future

In the modern world, development requires resources. One of the most significant aspects of the term resources is “Power”. Power can be in the form of labor or monetary assistance. To many this term may simply mean “Power to use”. By that I mean power resources which help us live our lives. Over time many people have become increasingly tired of receiving long and hefty power bills. These bills are extremely hard to pay back and cause many less earning families face problems. To avoid this hustle, simply what you have to do is shift to Solar Power.

What is Solar Power?

Solar Power is the energy obtained by Sun Light. Sunlight can be converted to electrical energy by the use of Photovoltaic Cells. For many people, these terms are extremely confusing and frustrating and some individuals just might cheat you under the pretext of providing you with better and cheaper shift to energy. I will define some of these terms to you beforehand.

Some Terms

Photovoltaic Cells: Also known as Solar Cells is a solid state device which directly converts the Sun Light into Electric Power through the Photovoltaic Cell.

Watt: Watt is an International Unit for measuring the consumption of Power in a certain time.

Kilo Watt: A Thousand Watts

Mega Watt: A Hundred Thousand Watts

Peak Hours: The time when Power consumption is the most.

Net Energy Metering: What remains after the deduction?

-Meet the Mother Of Complications

It is Complicated

These are some of the terms you very often come across while viewing your Electric Bill. After closely monitoring the Electricity bills of 2 of my close friends, I have come to the conclusion that Energy bills are really complicated for those with improper knowledge of these terminologies and they are very hard to pay back at certain times. Many people all over the world are living without the privilege of Electricity.

How Can Solar Power Help?

These people are deprived of perhaps the most basic commodity of life. In such times we are blessed to have access to Electricity plants which provide us Power to use. But would it not be better to shift to a much convenient and environment friendly power resource? Yes it would definitely be. By comparative analyses it is proven that people using PV Cells for generating power are much better than those depending upon local institutions as such PG & E Company.

First of all I will tell to you that if you plan to shift to Solar Power system, you will have to come into agreement with your Local Energy Provider. Like PG & E Company. They gave my friend a rate plan of E1 & E7.  If you choose E1 rate plan, the Company will provide them Power at the same rate and will credit them for every unit extra they produce and give the Company. You will be credited this way.

It Can Save You Money

It Can Save You Money

If you choose the E& package, the `Time You Use` (T.O.U) your energy will determine the bill you receive. That means the Company will charge you more during Peak time and less during Non-peak time. So logically, E7 Package, upon your choosing will require you to install a special meter which will cost you approximately $250 or more and will measure your Peak and Off-Peak hours separately.

The Peak Hours are from “12:00 A.M to 6:00 P.M”. This is the time when you will be earning the most of your money if you have the correct PV Unit installed! So my friends, before they got their Solar Panel Unit installed, received PG & E Company’s Energy Statement or more informally known as a Blue Bill. Read the full story

Solar Inverter

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Solar inverters are devices which convert direct current into alternating current. DC, commonly known as direct current is in a straight line form, and is not suitable for home appliances. We use AC or alternating current to run our domestic electronic devices. Solar inverters, as is evident from the name; work on the energy obtained from the sun.


How Electric Current is Produced?

Solar panels receive energy from the sun. This energy is in the form of light. Light is transferred to the photovoltaic cells which are mounted onto the solar panels. Photovoltaic cells are made of semiconductor layers of gallium or crystalline silicon. The semiconductors on the solar panel are connected through a junction, and contain both positive and negative layers.

When the heat reaches to the solar panels it is absorbed by the semiconductor elements affixed on them. The energy breaks the loose electrons of crystalline silicon or gallium. The loose electrons start a very fast motion from the negative layer of the photovoltaic cell to the positive layer of the cell. The fast motion of electrons produces electric current. The current generated because of the motion of the electrons in the solar panel is either stored into a battery for later use or is sent to the inverter.

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Solar Panel Wiring at Home

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Use of solar panel is becoming popular nowadays. Solar panels use energy from the sun, and are clean and environment friendly means of harvesting solar energy. However, the price makes people reluctant from buying it. Now it is easy to make solar panels cheaply, by using simple tools. Before installation that “how to set them up” few things will be needed.

Things needed to build solar panels:

Solar Cells (also called PV cells)

These are arrays of photovoltaic cells which are in shape of thin silicon disks. They convert sunlight into electricity. They are assembled to make solar panel. They are usually connected in series. Mostly the life of solar cell is about thirty years.


The easiest place to buy solar cells is eBay. Search for good quality cells and enough cells for the number of panels to build. While buying solar cells make sure that the size and the energy output stay consistent, to run equal power through solar panels.

Plywood and UV Protector Varnish

Plywood is used to hold the solar cells. To protect plywood from moisture and weather it must be given coating of UV. This is important for a long life of solar panel.

Plexiglas glass

As solar cells are fragile they needed to be handled carefully. To protect the solar cells from the weather it is needed to a have Plexiglas front.

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Step by Step Guide to Residential Solar Power System

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For the installation of a Photovoltaic Solar Energy System, firstly you have to check out that how much solar energy is usually absorbed by your panel which depends on the mean daily solar radiations for your area.

1. Calculating the Potential Solar Radiation Power

The average Solar energy obtained is about 4-5 kWh/m2/day, in most of the areas but in some areas it even reaches to 8.

Solar power

In order to check your area, please concern to this map which is provided by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Resource Assessment Program. In the units kWh/m2/day, where kWh stands for kilowatt hour, with “m” is the area of the absorber, for this case, the photovoltaic cell, with square meters. Where the solar panels work with the efficiency of ranging from 7 to 17%.

Solar Radiation (kWh/m2/day) X % of Solar Panel’s Efficiency (7%) = Tot, Power in kW a solar Panel (2m2) can generate Daily

Keeping in mind the above formula, your habitat consist of an average solar radiation of 4.5 kWh/m2/day in the surface area of about 1m2 of photovoltaic cells, then the resultant can be 0.315 kWh/day (315 Watt/day) with the efficiency of about 7% of an average solar panel.

2. Determine Your Average Energy Usage

Once you come to know that how much solar energy you are obtaining from the sun then you can calculate that how much energy you need on your recent energy involvement.

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