Tag Archive | "electrons"

Benefits Of A Solar Fountain

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Solar fountains are becoming popular nowadays. A garden or a park may look incomplete without a fountain. The fountains are also used in hotels and building fronts to improve the view.The conventional fountains are powered by using electricity form the national power grid or utilizing generators.

But both of these are expensive because of the growing costs of fuel and electricity. Using a solar fountain helps you in improving the view without paying any electricity bill.

Solar Fountains

These are identical to the ordinary fountains available in the market. The only difference is that they have an additional component to power it up. These solar fountains are equipped with solar panels and may also include battery as a back up. These solar panels provide current to the pump that operates the fountain.

Principle Of Operation Of Solar Fountain

A solar fountain operates on the principle of conversion of solar energy into the electrical current. The solar panels are composed of silicon based photovoltaic cells.

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Wiring Up Batteries and Solar Modules

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We are going to describe and illustrate the process of connecting batteries in series or parallel and combination of both. Installation of the solar system and batteries require wiring up configurations in the form of series, parallel and combination of both.

These wiring up configurations can be learned easily. Once learned with interest, then this task becomes easy and simple like a pie.

Two Terminal Points

All devices that generate direct current have negative and positive terminal points. Current or electrons flow from the negative terminal to a positive terminal. This flow is possible through the load. Just for the purpose of an easy explanation, we would represent it to a battery device or solar module device.

Series Wiring

In a series wiring, we connect the positive terminal of one device to the negative terminal of another device. It is key to remember that voltage remains additive when we wire devices in a series. If we say, our devices are capable of producing 12 volts each. Then four devices will produce 48 volts. Suppose that these devices are batteries then their total battery pack is 48 volts. However, if they were solar modules and each produce 17 volts. Then they will produce a total voltage of 68 volts.

Rule Of A Thumb

Another rule of thumb about series circuits is the similarity of current or amperage in a series circuit. Now suppose that batteries where these devices with a rating of 12 volts @ 220 amperage hours. Then total value of the series becomes 48 volts @ 220 amp hours.

Circuit Value Of Solar Modules

Solar modules with a rating of 17 volts @ 5-amperage hours make total circuit value of 68 volts @ 5-amps. In the example given above, two batteries with 6 volts @ 350 amps wire in series yielding 12 volts @ 350 amp hours.

Behavior Of Current And Voltage

Suppose devices were solar modules with a rating of 17 volts @4.4 amps. Then this series of circuits would yield 34 volts @ 4.4 amps. Keep in mind that in the series of circuit current stays the same while voltage is additive.

Parallel Circuits

In parallel circuits, connect the positive terminal of the first device to the positive terminal of the subsequent device, negative terminal of the first device to the negative terminal of the subsequent device.

Key To Remember

Key: In parallel circuits current and voltage behave just opposite to the series circuits. Voltage stay the same while the Current is additive. Suppose each device discussed in this example is capable of producing 350 amp hours while both can produce 700 amps at a same voltage.

Voltage Of Battery Devices

Let us say that these devices were batteries then total voltage of 12 volts @ 700 amp hours will yield. Solar modules will produce 17 volts @ 4.4 amps and each will result in 17 volts @ 8.8 amps.

Solar Modules Wired In Parallel Series

Four 17 Volt @ 4.4 Amp solar modules wired in parallel series yields 16.6 amps total @ 17 volts. Now suppose these devices were batteries with a rating of 12 volts each @ 220 Amps hours. Then this parallel circuit result in 12 volts @ 880 Amp hours.

Series/Parallel Circuits

Hold of your nerves because something wild is going to happen. We have learned almost everything about the series and parallel circuits. Now it is a time to understand a combination of the series and the parallel circuits.

Combination Of Series And Parallel Circuits

It is simply a combination of both the series and the parallel circuits. They wired together in the parallel setting. Suppose two separate pairs of batteries with 6 volts wired together in series and parallel ways.

Raising Amp Hour Rating Of A Battery

Suppose you desire to raise the Amp hour rating of a battery pack. You want to run your appliances longer. You demand to wire the battery pack in such a method as to retain the battery pack at 12 volts. You desire to raise the charging capacity of your solar panels.However, you demand to wire the solar modules in such a method as to retain the solar array at 34 volts. Well, series & parallel are the merely method to do that.

Increasing Charging Current

In fact, you increase your charging current when you wire the solar modules or batteries in parallel circuits because current is additive. Hence increasing run time or amp capacity would increase charging current. For solar modules, we need batteries with a voltage of 17 or 34 volts. When we wire solar module system, we get 12 or 34 volt requirement.

Voltage Produced By Batteries

Wire the batteries in individual sets that will give you the voltage that you need. Let us say that you demand 24 volts but have six-volt batteries on hand. Now wire four batteries of 6 volts in a series to yield 24 volts.

Wiring A Single Set Of Batteries

Wire all four batteries parallel to each other until wired jointly in parallel circuits. Every single set of batteries equals 24 Volts at 350 Amp hours. Subsequently five sequence sets wired to every single set in parallel series yielding a battery pack Of 24 Volt @ 1750 Amp hour.

Assistance In Wiring Up Batteries

Always keep in mind that voltage is additive and current stays same in series circuits while current is additive and the voltage remains same for parallel circuit. Need assistance to wire your system call on the number given below. We can furnish you alongside diagrams or each sort of assistance that you could demand to finish your installation.

Enjoying Tax Rebates

American consumer tired of high electricity cost can now enjoy tax credits and generous rebates offered with installation of a solar system throughout the U.S at their homes and businesses.

Why You Should Have Solar Energy Kit For Home?

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Solar kits are cost-effective and an economical way to generate power. Why these are so popular and beneficial? There are many reasons for that. These are easy to install and are highly durable. A brief discussion of their great advantages is given here:

Solar kits are environment-friendly

There is no emission of greenhouse gases and other hazardous chemicals in solar power generators. Therefore, all over the world governments are convincing consumers to use solar energy. They also give incentives and make these available to their people.

Residential areas are more likely to suffer from environmental hazards. Solar kits for homes are surely a great way to keep atmosphere clean and pure.

How to install a solar power kit?

Installing a solar power kit is easy. You can do the task yourself after getting full instructions. Reading or watching tutorial videos will help a lot. Illustrations about fitting the supplies are easily understandable.

Alternately, get a professional to do the job. They are trained enough to install the kit properly. It will save time and energy.

What is the total cost for solar power kit?

The initial cost for setting up the system may be high. Thanks to government that offers tax incentives for using various sources of renewable energy. For a ready-made solar system the cost may be $10 per watt. Once you get benefits and convenience of using solar energy, cost does not remain a big issue.

How long will it last?

Solar energy kits are really durable. Their long-lasting feature makes these popular and widely used in the world. These can work for almost twenty-five years or more. In this way, it gives phenomenal money saving.

How solar energy kits work in homes?

Solar energy kits have a grid of photovoltaic cells. These are made from silicon or other semi-conductors. When sunlight strikes the cells, electrons excite.

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Types And Advantages Of Solar Heating Systems

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Now you can power your house with green energy. It may sound expensive or difficult to convert normal home into sun-inspired home. But in fact, it is fairly simple and economical. These have countless benefits. Being environment-friendly, these are safer and not harmful for the atmosphere around.

Two methods of solar heating are “active” and “passive”.

Active solar heating

Specific equipment is required for active solar heating. Pumps and fans are needed to move or direct sun heat. There are two further classifications in it, which are air-based and liquid systems.

1.Air-based solar heating

In air-based solar heating systems, collectors are used. These trap air which absorbs and transfers heat from the sun. Air-based system can work on lower efficiency than liquid ones. Why is that so? The reason is that air cannot transfer heat efficiently like water can do.

Advantages of air-based solar heating

There is an advantage of air-based solar heating that these systems can warm up room directly. These can also function early in the morning and late in the day. Moreover, these are easy to build and install. These can be fixed outside so that more than one room in a house can be heated.

Air-based connectors are mostly installed on window frames, roofs and walls.

2.Liquid-based active solar heating

Liquid solar collectors are used in liquid-based systems. These trap and move heat. Most common are flat-plate collectors. A fluid, like water or antifreeze is filled. This liquid absorbs heat. This heated fluid is then transferred to heat exchanger or storage tank through mechanical collector such as pump.

Important considerations

While installing solar heating system, consider these important things first:

  • Its cost is affordable
  • Size is suitable to your particular needs
  • It is durable and long-lasting
  • Tank placement is absolutely accurate

When entire mechanism is properly installed, solar heat can be distributed with a central-forced air system, a radiant floor, and a baseboard or hot water radiator.

Passive solar heating

Another type is Passive solar heating system. It works by storing solar energy. It does not require any electrical or mechanical devices.

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Producing Electricity From Sillicon Solar Cells

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Natural resources of fuel are at a risk of being eliminated due to their consumption in very large amount. Scientist are trying to find new ways of producing fuel. One of them is the solar energy. Solar systems have been invented which convert heat energy into electricity. These solar systems are now in use and are cheap source of electricity. To understand the whole working of the solar energy systems, one must understand about the basic thing that is “Solar cell”.

Use Of Silicon In Solar Cells

Use Of Silicon In Solar Cells

The world has progressed rapidly in the field of solar energy. It is easy to use and is cheapest form of energy. To understand about solar energy system, one must start from basic level.,, a solar cell. The basic component of the solar cell is the semiconductor used to convert heat energy into electric charge. Many elements are now being used for this purpose but the best element that has been used from a long time and is still a part of many solar devices is Silicon. The guide line for solar cells is provided by the silicon structure in a photovoltaic (PV) cell. The current is produced in these cells by movement of the electrons from their respective shells. To move more electrons, additional impurities are added in silicon.

Producing Electricity From Solar Cell

A solar grade is made up with a crystalline structure. Semiconductor used in the cells is Silicon atom having three layers holding electrons. The no. of electrons increase in the center of atom. When the electrons from the outer shell of silicon escape, electrons from inner shells move to replace them. This moving results in creating a locked structure. Due to this reason, most of the silicon solar cells ape P-type or N-type silicon cells. N-type cells are added with the impurity that is mainly phosphorous which helps more electrons to escape from the outermost cell of silicon atom. Read the full story

Hybrid Solar Cells

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Alternative Energy is considered to be the best solution to the growing problems associated with energy crisis. Many individuals are positively taking part in changing the mechanism of energy production. However this process is not as easy or simple as it seems. Many individuals have completely dedicated their time and energy to this task. A solar power panel can produce solar energy. However effective and powerful solar cells are required as well.

What Are Solar Cells?

What Are Solar Cells

The task of the solar cells is to convert and contain the sunlight. The energy from the sunlight is very precious as it can be easily converted into electricity. The electricity can then be used to completely boost any industrial or domestic project. Solar cells come in various different forms and have wide categories. Experts believe that over the years, three major solar cell categories have emerged. One of these is the latest third generation solar cells.

The Third Generation of Solar Cells

The third generation solar cells are very unique. They are not composed of Silicon but of different organic materials and plastic. The third generation solar cells are quite valuable as they are economic and capable of producing high amounts of energy. The energy can be used in any commercial or domestic power project.

How Solar Cells Work?

For many people, solar energy is the final answer. It is important to know how a Solar cells works. The most advanced and latest type of third generation solar cell works in an elegant fashion. Read the full story

Third Generation Polymer Solar Cells

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Solar energy is one of the most useful and vital forms of energy. It can be easily produced by the harnessing of Sunlight in to potential electricity. Electricity can be then used in various commercial and domestic projects. Solar Energy is an alternative form of energy. It can be quite useful in making benefits for people of all age and regions. Sunlight is received by the Earth in almost all parts. It can be effectively converted through Solar Cells.

Third Generation Solar Cells

Third Generation Solar Cells

Solar Cells are the name given to the device that is responsible for the generation of Solar Energy. Solar Power Panels come equipped with the Solar Cells. These Solar Cells are capable of generating power when the light strikes their surface. However Solar Energy has various other uses as well. The introduction of modern techniques has also changed Solar Energy greatly. A new generation of Solar Cells has been introduced to the market.

Polymer Solar Cells

The latest and perhaps the final type of Solar Cells are the Polymer Solar Cells. These are the latest and most useful innovation to date. Read the full story

Photovoltaic (PV) Cells

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In this modern era, people are looking for sources of creating usable electricity which is not only reliable but also environmental friendly. Due to this demand or interest, researchers and scientists started working on this project. They found many solutions but the best solution was Photovoltaic Cells.

What Is a Photovoltaic Cell?

What Is a Photovoltaic Cell

A photovoltaic cell is basically a device which generates electricity just by using energy from the sun. A photovoltaic cell does not require any fossil fuel for its operation and hence it is the most clean and environmental friendly source of electricity.

Composition of a Photovoltaic Cell

A photovoltaic cell consists of a diode. A diode conducts electric current through conducting materials as well as insulators when the electrons in the diode are provided with sufficient energy. This energy can be provided by any mean including heat energy from the sun.

How Photovoltaic Cells Work

The light rays from the sun carry the energy. When these light rays strike on the photovoltaic cell, the energy from the rays is transferred into the atoms of the semiconductor which in turn release electrons. These electrons are the charge carriers and hence they start conducting electrical charge in the form of a Direct Current. This Direct Current then enters the inverters which converts this Direct Current into usable Alternating Current. This Alternating Current can then be fed through the utility panel and then used to power up anything.

Extrinsic Semiconductors

Silicon is the most common semiconductor because of its physical qualities. Most semiconductors are fabricated using silicon. This may be due to the fact that silicon is more durable and also stable at higher temperatures. Read the full story

Solar Power and How It Works?

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To gain electricity through solar power is getting very popular now a days. Its use has become very common in this century. In face solar energy system is very easy to use and its benefits are numerous. It is a cheap way to get electricity. Following are some important aspects of solar power system:

Photovoltaic Panels

Photovoltaic Panels

When we talk about a complete solar energy system, the first and foremost thing that comes into mind is photovoltaic panel. A home solar energy system is comprised of these important panels. And off course in order to get a reliably amount of solar energy one must have high quality photovoltaic panels. If these panels are solid and of good quality then sufficient amount of energy can easily be collected. Moreover they must have rightly placed in order to absorb power from the Sun. So while buying panels’ extreme care must be taken otherwise it would be the wastage of money.


When you have completed the installation of solar panels then they started to absorb heat from the sun through its rays. One of most important parts of these panels is semiconductor. One common example of semiconductor is silicon. Electric current is created when the photons of sun rays hit the electrons.

Current Produce

When electrons are turned loose then a direct current is created. But most of home appliances like freezers, microwave ovens, DVD players, dishwashers and television are run through alternative current. So in this case it would not be possible to run the most important things of daily use. Then a question comes into mind that if panels produce direct current then it is useless to have a home solar energy system.


This problem can be solved with the help of a converter. It is also an important part of solar power system. Read the full story

Polymer Solar Cells of Third Generation Solar Cells

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Third generation solar cells include a variety of solar cells like nanocrystal solar cells, photoelectrochemical solar cells, polymer solar cells etc. Solar cells of the third generation of solar technology are basically evolved from the previous two generations of solar technology i.e., first and second generation solar cells. It is because these cells are not reliant on traditional p-n junctions for the electron separation from their charge carriers.

Functioning of Polymer Solar Cells

Functioning of Polymer Solar Cells

Polymer solar cells of third generation work on the same principal on which other solar cells are working. These solar cells are also collecting sunlight and converting it into electricity. Polymer solar cells just like carbon, foil and plastic solar cells are the great substitutes of costly and complex silicone cell production.

Features of Polymer Solar Cells

Polymer solar cells are very affordable as their production costs are only a third of the total price of the first generation silicone cells production.Also, polymer solar cells are flexible and disposable.

Molecule Level Production of Polymer Solar Cells

These solar cells can be designed or tailored on a molecule level in the following manner. A solar cell can be built when molecules or fullerenes solely comprised of carbon that are injected into polymer. After the injection of carbon molecules, a visible light travels from the polymer chain to a fullerene molecule. Read the full story

Working Of Solar Cells

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Solar cells perform the function of conversion of light into energy. This is the same technology as used by the computer industry to make computer chips. The cell must absorb the energy before the occurrence of anything else in the conversion process. The light acts as a leader in the overall process. The electrons present in the material from which the cell is made suffer an increase in energy when the light is absorbed into the cell. Due to the higher level of energy, the electrons become free and start moving around the cell. This increased level of energy remains in effect for just a few minutes before reaching to the normal level of the activity.

Construction Of P-N Junction:

Construction Of P-N Junction

The pn junction is prepared from the two separate regions of the semiconductor material. Silicon is the material that is most commonly used in it. It is known as pn junction because of the reason that its one side is called as the p-type region while the other is the n-type region.

Working Of P-N Junction:

The pn junction serves the purpose of collection of the carriers before they lose all of their energy which was initially created at the time of striking of the light with the solar panel. Read the full story