Tag Archive | "electron"

Benefits Of A Solar Fountain

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Solar fountains are becoming popular nowadays. A garden or a park may look incomplete without a fountain. The fountains are also used in hotels and building fronts to improve the view.The conventional fountains are powered by using electricity form the national power grid or utilizing generators.

But both of these are expensive because of the growing costs of fuel and electricity. Using a solar fountain helps you in improving the view without paying any electricity bill.

Solar Fountains

These are identical to the ordinary fountains available in the market. The only difference is that they have an additional component to power it up. These solar fountains are equipped with solar panels and may also include battery as a back up. These solar panels provide current to the pump that operates the fountain.

Principle Of Operation Of Solar Fountain

A solar fountain operates on the principle of conversion of solar energy into the electrical current. The solar panels are composed of silicon based photovoltaic cells.

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Wiring Up Batteries and Solar Modules

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We are going to describe and illustrate the process of connecting batteries in series or parallel and combination of both. Installation of the solar system and batteries require wiring up configurations in the form of series, parallel and combination of both.

These wiring up configurations can be learned easily. Once learned with interest, then this task becomes easy and simple like a pie.

Two Terminal Points

All devices that generate direct current have negative and positive terminal points. Current or electrons flow from the negative terminal to a positive terminal. This flow is possible through the load. Just for the purpose of an easy explanation, we would represent it to a battery device or solar module device.

Series Wiring

In a series wiring, we connect the positive terminal of one device to the negative terminal of another device. It is key to remember that voltage remains additive when we wire devices in a series. If we say, our devices are capable of producing 12 volts each. Then four devices will produce 48 volts. Suppose that these devices are batteries then their total battery pack is 48 volts. However, if they were solar modules and each produce 17 volts. Then they will produce a total voltage of 68 volts.

Rule Of A Thumb

Another rule of thumb about series circuits is the similarity of current or amperage in a series circuit. Now suppose that batteries where these devices with a rating of 12 volts @ 220 amperage hours. Then total value of the series becomes 48 volts @ 220 amp hours.

Circuit Value Of Solar Modules

Solar modules with a rating of 17 volts @ 5-amperage hours make total circuit value of 68 volts @ 5-amps. In the example given above, two batteries with 6 volts @ 350 amps wire in series yielding 12 volts @ 350 amp hours.

Behavior Of Current And Voltage

Suppose devices were solar modules with a rating of 17 volts @4.4 amps. Then this series of circuits would yield 34 volts @ 4.4 amps. Keep in mind that in the series of circuit current stays the same while voltage is additive.

Parallel Circuits

In parallel circuits, connect the positive terminal of the first device to the positive terminal of the subsequent device, negative terminal of the first device to the negative terminal of the subsequent device.

Key To Remember

Key: In parallel circuits current and voltage behave just opposite to the series circuits. Voltage stay the same while the Current is additive. Suppose each device discussed in this example is capable of producing 350 amp hours while both can produce 700 amps at a same voltage.

Voltage Of Battery Devices

Let us say that these devices were batteries then total voltage of 12 volts @ 700 amp hours will yield. Solar modules will produce 17 volts @ 4.4 amps and each will result in 17 volts @ 8.8 amps.

Solar Modules Wired In Parallel Series

Four 17 Volt @ 4.4 Amp solar modules wired in parallel series yields 16.6 amps total @ 17 volts. Now suppose these devices were batteries with a rating of 12 volts each @ 220 Amps hours. Then this parallel circuit result in 12 volts @ 880 Amp hours.

Series/Parallel Circuits

Hold of your nerves because something wild is going to happen. We have learned almost everything about the series and parallel circuits. Now it is a time to understand a combination of the series and the parallel circuits.

Combination Of Series And Parallel Circuits

It is simply a combination of both the series and the parallel circuits. They wired together in the parallel setting. Suppose two separate pairs of batteries with 6 volts wired together in series and parallel ways.

Raising Amp Hour Rating Of A Battery

Suppose you desire to raise the Amp hour rating of a battery pack. You want to run your appliances longer. You demand to wire the battery pack in such a method as to retain the battery pack at 12 volts. You desire to raise the charging capacity of your solar panels.However, you demand to wire the solar modules in such a method as to retain the solar array at 34 volts. Well, series & parallel are the merely method to do that.

Increasing Charging Current

In fact, you increase your charging current when you wire the solar modules or batteries in parallel circuits because current is additive. Hence increasing run time or amp capacity would increase charging current. For solar modules, we need batteries with a voltage of 17 or 34 volts. When we wire solar module system, we get 12 or 34 volt requirement.

Voltage Produced By Batteries

Wire the batteries in individual sets that will give you the voltage that you need. Let us say that you demand 24 volts but have six-volt batteries on hand. Now wire four batteries of 6 volts in a series to yield 24 volts.

Wiring A Single Set Of Batteries

Wire all four batteries parallel to each other until wired jointly in parallel circuits. Every single set of batteries equals 24 Volts at 350 Amp hours. Subsequently five sequence sets wired to every single set in parallel series yielding a battery pack Of 24 Volt @ 1750 Amp hour.

Assistance In Wiring Up Batteries

Always keep in mind that voltage is additive and current stays same in series circuits while current is additive and the voltage remains same for parallel circuit. Need assistance to wire your system call on the number given below. We can furnish you alongside diagrams or each sort of assistance that you could demand to finish your installation.

Enjoying Tax Rebates

American consumer tired of high electricity cost can now enjoy tax credits and generous rebates offered with installation of a solar system throughout the U.S at their homes and businesses.

Solar Initiative By Ausra

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Energy holds the potential of becoming the most sought after community of the future. Among various energy sources, the solar energy appears to be the most prominent commodity of the future. This technology is available in market since long but the expensive apparatus are the biggest hurdle in its progress. Now a days numerous companies are trying to bring the initial costs of solar panels to reasonable limits. Ausra power is leading the way in this regard.

History Of Ausra Solar

Ausra solar emerged as one of the giants in solar energy in 2006. The company is based at Palo Alto close to the famous Nanosolar headquarters. It is a private company with the aim of lowering the costs of solar energy to the bare minimum and makes it affordable for the common household. Their target is to make the solar energy as affordable as the coal or nuclear energy.

Funding Of Ausra Solar

The Ausra Solar is a private company but it receives aid and funds from numerous organizations. The biggest supporter is Khosla Ventures. Few of the other partners are listed below:-

1. Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers

2. Electronic Arts

3. Genentech

4. Macromedia

5. Sun Microsystems

Objective Of Ausra Solar

The Ausra Solar aims at advancing in the field of solar energy with a view to lower the costs of solar energy apparatus.

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What Are Carbon Nanotube Solar Cells?

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Carbon nanotube is one of the popular solar cells of soar technology. These solar cells are still the subject of many researches and going through experimental phase. These solar cells are extremely small in size. In reality, the word “small” is not sufficient enough to describe these cells. A single-walled carbon nanotube has been developed by the researchers of the Cornell University is just about the size of a molecule of DNA.

Physical Properties of Nanotubes

Physical Properties of Nanotubes

They are narrow. They an be extremely long in relative to their width. Some authentic sources also state that most single-walled nanotubes are as tiny as about one nanometer thick or are equal to the one billionth part of a meter.  The one nanometer wide tube can be long as millions of times.

Working of Carbon Nanotubes

When the sunlight strikes onto the carbon nanotube, it excites electrons. After the excitement, these electrons are drawn into a tube with the help of electrical contacts at either end. The special feature of carbon nanotubes is that the deeper the electron travels into the nanotubes the more exited these electrons become and excites more electrons. All the excited electrons are evenly taken out the end of the tube. The researchers at Cornell University also found out that carbon nanotubes may be the most feasible or ideal solar cells due to their ability to enable electrons to generate even more electrons. Consequently, carbon nanotubes harness more amount of photon energy from the light that strikes the tube.

Small Space, More Energy Production

Another beneficial feature of carbon nanotubes is that they do not loss surplus energy. The most interesting thing about carbon nanotubes is that these solar cells are capable of performing more efficiently on extremely smaller levels. Read the full story

Polymer Solar Cells of Third Generation Solar Cells

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Third generation solar cells include a variety of solar cells like nanocrystal solar cells, photoelectrochemical solar cells, polymer solar cells etc. Solar cells of the third generation of solar technology are basically evolved from the previous two generations of solar technology i.e., first and second generation solar cells. It is because these cells are not reliant on traditional p-n junctions for the electron separation from their charge carriers.

Functioning of Polymer Solar Cells

Functioning of Polymer Solar Cells

Polymer solar cells of third generation work on the same principal on which other solar cells are working. These solar cells are also collecting sunlight and converting it into electricity. Polymer solar cells just like carbon, foil and plastic solar cells are the great substitutes of costly and complex silicone cell production.

Features of Polymer Solar Cells

Polymer solar cells are very affordable as their production costs are only a third of the total price of the first generation silicone cells production.Also, polymer solar cells are flexible and disposable.

Molecule Level Production of Polymer Solar Cells

These solar cells can be designed or tailored on a molecule level in the following manner. A solar cell can be built when molecules or fullerenes solely comprised of carbon that are injected into polymer. After the injection of carbon molecules, a visible light travels from the polymer chain to a fullerene molecule. Read the full story

Working of Solar Panels

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The working of solar panels is not a complex thing to understand. It is very simple and can easily be understood. In this simple process, sunlight strikes a certain type of material where it excites electrons and generates a current and voltage. That voltage can be utilized to empower devices. Following is the explanation of the working of solar panels.

Silicon as Semiconductor

Silicon as Semiconductor

Silicon is obtained from the earth. It is one of the most abundant elements of the earth. It is readily avoidable in all types of sand and rocks. Silicon is a semi conductor that is used for various purposes. Copper is also used as conductor in copper wires. Rubber is an insulator that is used to coat the copper wire. Silicon is half insulator and half conductor that is why it is known as semi-conductor. Read the full story

Why Do I Need a Solar Inverter?

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A set of photovoltaic consist of silicon wafers which absorb sunlight form the atmosphere and convert it into electricity. The electricity so produced is direct current (DC) which we cannot use directly to run our daily household electronic or electric devices. In order to convert the DC into alternating current (AC) we need an electronic deice commonly know as solar inverter. The current so generated by using the direct current by the inverter is used to power our daily household electricity consuming equipments.

Direct Current Functions

Direct Current Functions

Direct Current represents flow of electrons in one direction with a regular strength. The flow of the electrons is from negative node to the positive one. To understand the flow of direct current one can take case of batteries commonly used in vehicles or even smaller batteries used in battery operated devices. Other examples of DC are solar power cells, solar power systems etc. Although, almost every electronic circuit operates on DC but the problem with DC is it cannot be transmitted to use it away form its original place of generation.

Alternating Current Functions

Conversely the alternating current (AC) continues change its direction and its strength also keep variations. Probably due to the rapid change in directions of the current on alternates it is named alternating current. Step-up and Step-down transformers are used to increase and decrease respectively the voltage power of AC. Due to this functionality the AC is easy to transmit from the location of its generation to the locations of its use.

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Solar Inverter

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Solar inverters are devices which convert direct current into alternating current. DC, commonly known as direct current is in a straight line form, and is not suitable for home appliances. We use AC or alternating current to run our domestic electronic devices. Solar inverters, as is evident from the name; work on the energy obtained from the sun.


How Electric Current is Produced?

Solar panels receive energy from the sun. This energy is in the form of light. Light is transferred to the photovoltaic cells which are mounted onto the solar panels. Photovoltaic cells are made of semiconductor layers of gallium or crystalline silicon. The semiconductors on the solar panel are connected through a junction, and contain both positive and negative layers.

When the heat reaches to the solar panels it is absorbed by the semiconductor elements affixed on them. The energy breaks the loose electrons of crystalline silicon or gallium. The loose electrons start a very fast motion from the negative layer of the photovoltaic cell to the positive layer of the cell. The fast motion of electrons produces electric current. The current generated because of the motion of the electrons in the solar panel is either stored into a battery for later use or is sent to the inverter.

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Making a Solar Heater With Car Radiator

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Radiator is a tool placed in the vehicle engine to protect the engine from overheating. The radiator keeps the engine cool and prevents it from getting damaged. Not only this but the there are several other uses of a car radiator. If you are thinking to buy a water heater, and possess a radiator you can save money and get your hot water. We will tell you how to make a solar heater from a car radiator. Radiators can be used to make cheap and strong water heaters.

 Solar kits

Simple Technique and Simple Tools

You don’t need to be an expert in auto mechanics or electronics. Any average person without any knowledge of engineering can make a solar heater with a car radiator. All you need is a car radiator, a screwdriver, tack hammer, black spray paint, two rubber radiator pipes and two pipe fasteners. Once you have collected all the tools and gadgets you are ready to start your project.Radiator is the main component of your project therefore it is necessary for you to check it properly. Before you start make sure if it has been repaired, and does not leak. The radiator you will be using should also be properly flushed and pressurized. An unchecked or leaking radiator might not work properly and can cause problems later on.

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Energy Loss In A Solar Cell

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Whenever we think of solar energy, we assume that it is just simple sunlight, ignoring the fact that visible light is just part of the complete electromagnetic spectrum.

energy loss

It is important to keep in mind that electromagnetic radiation is not monochromatic, it’s made up of a wide range of different wavelengths, and therefore different energy levels.

It is possible to separate light into different wavelengths, which can be seen in the form of a rainbow. And as the light that falls on our solar cell has multiple photons carrying different ranges of energies, some of these photons don’t have enough energy to alter an electron-hole pair.