Tag Archive | "chemical"

Efficiency of Biofuels

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Biofuels can be created with the conversion of natural material into power in order to strengthen the people. These biofuels are also an alternative energy resource as against the relic sources of power that we are presently using.

Biofuels Chemicals

The umbrella of biofuels comprise of a chemical substance ethanol and end products of couple of plants, like sugar cane. These also consist of corn oils. It should, however, be kept in mind that complete set of ethanol products are not premeditated as a petrol source. In this regard The International Agency has disclosed that within the time of fifteen years, ten percent of global petrol will be made by ethanol. This figure will rise to 30% in 2050 and currently the amount is only 2%.

Energy Efficiency

Nonetheless, it is long process to purify these biofuels and make these usable. In this regard, the Oregon State University has also unearthed the fact through their research that still we need to widen the energy resourceful biofuels, because gas is prepared from the fuel. Energy efficiency gauges the total quantity of functional energy that we require is resultant of particular quantity of input power. So far, not enough energy has been derived for our needs.

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Conversion of Biomass into Energy

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Ancient way of converting biomass into energy is just to burn it for producing heat, as humans practiced it for thousands of years. Still this is the most common way for conversion of biomass into energy in United States and elsewhere also.

Biomass conversion into Energy

The heat generated from biomass can be used for heating, cooking, and industrial processes, or for producing electricity.

Using biomass for burning haves some problems regarding some energy waste and also some air pollution if it is not carefully controlled.

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How Coal is Transported and Processed

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Coal is transported all around United States by train; according to figures almost 70% of coal in 2007 was transported around United States through railroad. Barges and trucks contribution for coal transportation is 11% while rest is delivered mainly by tramway, conveyor belt, or slurry pipeline.

How Coal is transported

Sometime coal is transported great distances. Such as, Powder River Basin coal is transported by rail to power plants as far away as Georgia. It travels a long way as far as the distance from Wyoming to Georgia.

To save the money from coal transportation costs there is a common way that using coal near the coal-mines. As soon as the coal is mined it’s delivered immediately to power plant through conveyor belt. Such plants are called “mine mouth” plants. The growing presence of mine mouth plants had eased by expanding use of long distance electricity transmission.

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US To Invest Millions In Solar Energy

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The US Department of Energy (DOE) has announced plans to invest up to $366million in establishing three new Energy Innovation Hubs, which are described as the ultimate transport solution, finally giving solar fuels the significant financial investment they need.

solar energy

The Hubs will be catering three main areas of solar energy, including developing an effective solar energy to chemical fuel conversion system.

Each hub will be given a fund of almost $122million, over a period of five years. In order to do this, a team of researchers will work together to speed up the scientific discovery to technological development process.

The DOE admits that a lot of work still has to be done, regarding the design of solar fuel generation systems with the required efficiency and sustainability for economic viability.

Chemists Describe Solar Energy Progress And Challenges, Including The ‘Artificial Leaf’

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According to recent reports, scientists are working together progressively to develop an “artificial leaf” that imitates the working of a real leaf, i.e. the chemical magic done through photosynthesis.

artificial leaf

However, instead of food for the plant, the new leaf converts sunlight and water into a liquid fuel such as methanol for cars and trucks.

The report came from top authorities on solar energy, who met at the 1st Annual Chemical Sciences and Society Symposium. The authorities stressed on initiating international cooperation and novel thinking on the global energy challenge.

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How Batteries Work and Store Energy

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Energy is of  kind that can neither be created nor destroyed but it can be changed into different forms. With the growth of time it is found that energy can also be stored in battery in the form of chemical energy.  On connecting battery in a circuit, it produces electricity.

A battery has two ends, a positive and a negative terminal. When the positive terminal is connected to the negative end with a wire, it forms a circuit. The electrons will flow in the wire and the electricity will be produced.

inside_battery

This is possible because the chemical reaction in the battery takes place. The reaction only takes place when the flow of electrons occurs.  The energy in this way can be saved in batteries, as the chemical reacts only when the electrons move from negative to the positive terminal through a circuit. This way the batteries are useful in storing energy.

The Inside of a battery: Chemical Reactions

The process that takes place inside the battery can be simply understood by zinc-carbon battery also known as carbon battery in short. The battery consists of acidic material and a rod of zinc situated down the centre. This involves bit knowledge of chemistry. The acidic substance in the battery reacts with the zinc rod; it in result produces hydrogen gas and heat energy. chemical reaction battery

The acid molecules break up into its small components usually the hydrogen and other atoms. The process results in the evolution of hydrogen ions that combine with the zinc atoms to give hydrogen gas. The same reaction doesn’t occur when the carbon rod is intact with the acid material. But if the carbon rod is connected with the zinc rod through a wire and a circuit is settled, the flow of electrons will begin and some of them will attach with the hydrogen on the carbon rod.

This releases a little hydrogen and less heat, the heat portion is exactly what that circulates in the circuit. The energy in the circuit is capable to perform anything, it can lit a light bulb and turn on a small motor, when talking of a big battery, it can start an automobile. A battery keeps working till the whole zinc gets dissolve in the acid. As the zinc gets finished, the battery then remains no longer of use.

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