How to Build Small Solar Circuits (Wiring & Diagrams)

Solar energy is quite expensive and difficult to maintain at large scales but at small scales it is not only cost effective but also the small scale power requirements can be fulfilled by constructing simple solar circuits. These can be used in the decorative items. small solar Circut

Small Solar panel:

The first thing required to create these simple solar circuits is of course a device which will collect the sunlight. You can use a small solar panel made of monolithic copper indium diselenide. These are available in the market and will cost you about 3 to 4 dollars.

smal solar panelsolar panel back side

Two solderable terminals marked with polarity will be there on the back side of the panel. The specifications of the panels are given on it. Usually with that price, the panels may produce 4 to 5 V.

Direct circuit i.e. direct circuit using the sunlight to run some device:

solar panel wiring diagram direct circuitIf you want to use this solar panel directly for producing electricity then connect the load with the terminals of the solar panel. You can run small motors like the motor of the CD player or small bulbs like high power (50 to 90 mA) blue led. If you connect light of greater power then it may be damaged by this amount of current. If you place that circuit near some lamp or in sunlight, it will immediately start working. Solar Panel Direct Circuit light

This direct usage will not store the energy. Small interruptions in sunlight with suspend the system. This may lead to the blinking of the load connected to this type of direct circuit.

Solar Panel Direct Circuit Motor Example

Direct device interrupted with resistance:Solar Panel Cricuit Diagram with Capacitors

For working of solar circuit without interruption, superconductors may be adjusted within the circuit. It will provide current during small interruptions. Capacitors should be added in series if more than one capacitor is needed as to match correct energy out put. Solar Panel Circuit with Capacitors

One path of current is complete; this type circuit will take 30 seconds to one minute to get it started. This will work for 0ne or two minutes even when the sunlight is not available. This is quite effective for the light applications.

Addition of battery will make the solar circuit to work in dark:Solar Panel Circuit Diagram with battery and LED

Addition of capacitor will only make the circuit to work with interruption in sunlight and it will not provide adequate energy storage. If you attach a rechargeable battery (like NiMH rechargeable battery) then this type of circuit will not only provide electricity in the presence of light but also in the dark. This type of solar circuit will charge the battery which will provide the electricity in absence of light.Solar Panel with LED and Battery

One important thing is to keep in mind that the battery will not only take up electricity but also transfer some part of acquired electricity back to solar panel. It is advisable to connect a reverse diode in between the two. By doing this you can save 50mA of electricity going back to solar panel. NiMH batteries and sealed lead-acid batteries are most suitable batteries for such type of unmonitored system. The charging should be kept below 130mA.

Dark detector LED driver Circuit:dark-detecting LED driver circuit

The dark sensor is device is very easy to incorporate in your solar circuits. By the help of this your solar circuit will automatically sense the dark and it can also be used as infrared phototransistor.Complete Solar panel kit with dark detect led

PNP transistor can be used to perform switching and it is controlled by the output voltage of the solar panel. In this circuit yellow LED can be connected which will turn on in dark as the transistor will allow current to flow through it. The panel’s output is high in the sunny environment which will turn off the transistor. Red or yellow LED can be driven by this type of solar circuit. This circuit does not have sufficient voltage which is required to drive blue or white LED.

Solar circuit for garden:solar garden light circuit

By adding Joule Thief voltage in the above type of circuit, the design of the solar circuit can be improved and it can be used in solar garden lights. This circuit needs to be enclosed in very tough and water resistant casing.

AVR Microcontroller:Solar Panel LED with small AVR microcontroller

The voltage used in light detector can be used in more effective device like AVR microcontroller. This is a very efficient and low current device. This device will save the power by controlling the running of LED all the time. Joule Thief style of booster can be driven by microcontroller which can run white LED.Small Solar Panel Kit with small AVR microcontroller

This type of circuit can be used to run two red LED outputs. Many funky lanterns can be made lit with the help of such solar circuits. Solar Panel circuit Diagram, with two red LED outputs Solar Powered spooky Jack-o'-lanter

A word of caution:

In above discussion, many minute details are not included intentionally as they are not important in such small scale products. But these can be critical if you are working on large scale.

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27 thoughts on “How to Build Small Solar Circuits (Wiring & Diagrams)”

  1. am very gratefull to your wonderfull work and am pleading you if you can teach me to get the talent of building solar panel so that i can help my village to get electricity power for our garden work.thank you and i hope to here from you

  2. dear sir,

    please teach me how to make solar power for home applainces. kindly give me the circuits and theory

  3. I am so going to build some of these projects, great idea and i might even design some of my own. I have seen a solar powered chicken coop door opener which i plan on building very soon for my clan in the garden.

  4. I need to drive an exhaust fan of 12V in my car. Can you please advice the best solar circuit to run it.

    Rgds
    Ray

  5. Pingback: Anonymous
  6. Sir i am into the development stage of 6 V single LED LANTERN. If you can please send me the circuit diagram on my mail. Wil b very thankful to you.

  7. sir am building a solar lantern 6v led acid battery. please may you send the circuit to me via my e mail

  8. need further details on the AVR Controller. Is it a single chip IC. Please let me have the details and availability.
    Thanks.
    v.s.dev
    India

  9. I need a circuit diagram for solar ehergy up to 3Kva. thank you for your anticipated corporation.

  10. hi, i need ckt design of solar planner to glow LED.
    i also require battery capacity for it. THANK YOU

  11. i love your work on solar panel.i am currently working on one but it seems not to be progressive,please i need your help.

  12. I am trying to make a solar powered shoe, which can charge small batteries, can you help me how to deal with it, i really don’t know where to begin from?

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    Parveen Kumar
    (sales.ex)

    Radha Energy Cell
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  14. i need ckt for 12v/1.2A blinker operating on solar panel with inverter. also tell me what rating of solar panel should i use. which type of battery should i use. please tell me

  15. hai..i need help what sensor can i use for my solar?when there is a current from the solar the sensor will light on and if there is no current it will switch off..

    and what sensor can i use for 1 phase supply?thnx…

  16. I want to know the detailed information about internal mechanism of devices that will convert solar energy into electrical energy.can u provide me the details about this

  17. How do i increase the voltage using several solar cells. example……..three 6 volt cells to make 18 volts

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